Wednesday, March 21, 2018

The REAL SCIENCE of actual digital photography "IMAGE QUALITY"

 While more than 32 point exist, here are the main ones:

1. Lens architecture & design
2. Aperture: affecting saturation, low gain SNR, circle of confusion, etc.
3. File type compression: 10 bit, 12 bit, compression algorithms
4. File type: Raw / jpeg, TIFF, Adobe color space
5. Image demosaicing processing and its corresponding main board algorithms
6. Main board image compression algorithms
7. Native sensor SNR: Silicon wafer design & efficiency
8. Optical low pass filter: if present or not
9. Main board image denoising SNR filtering & efficiency technology
10. Lens efficiency
11. Microlens design & efficiency
12. Pixel pitch
13. Lens LPMM resolving power
14. Sensor architecture: normal or BSI or other
15. Color Filter Array: Bayer, X-trans etc.
16. Sensor megapixel count and density
17. Lens spectrum transmissive response from near IR to near UV, or all visible light frequencies
18. Image Saturation, i.e. ETTR & fundamental image exposure maximization
19. Analog to digital converters
20. Lens microcontrast
21. Sharpness determines the amount of detail an image can convey. System sharpness is affected by the lens (design and manufacturing quality, focal length, aperture, and distance from the image center) and sensor (pixel count and anti-aliasing filter). In the field, sharpness is affected by camera shake (a good tripod can be helpful), focus accuracy, and atmospheric disturbances (thermal effects and aerosols). Lost sharpness can be restored by sharpening, but sharpening has limits. Oversharpening, can degrade image quality by causing "halos" to appear near contrast boundaries. Images from many compact digital cameras are sometimes over-sharpened to compensate for lower image quality.    
22. Noise is a random variation of image density, visible as grain in film and pixel level variations in digital images. It arises from the effects of basic physics— the photon nature of light and the thermal energy of heat— inside image sensors. Typical noise reduction (NR) software reduces the visibility of noise by smoothing the image, excluding areas near contrast boundaries. This technique works well, but it can obscure fine, low contrast detail.    
23. Dynamic range (or exposure range) is the range of light levels a camera can capture, usually measured in f-stops, EV (exposure value), or zones (all factors of two in exposure). It is closely related to noise: high noise implies low dynamic range.  
24. Tone reproduction is the relationship between scene luminance and the reproduced image brightness.     Contrast, also known as gamma, is the slope of the tone reproduction curve in a log-log space. High contrast usually involves loss of dynamic range — loss of detail, or clipping, in highlights or shadows.    
25. Color accuracy is an important but ambiguous image quality factor. Many viewers prefer enhanced color saturation; the most accurate color isn't necessarily the most pleasing. Nevertheless it is important to measure a camera's color response: its color shifts, saturation, and the effectiveness of its white balance algorithms.     
26. Distortion is an aberration that causes straight lines to curve. It can be troublesome for architectural photography and metrology (photographic applications involving measurement). Distortion tends to be noticeable in low cost cameras, including cell phones, and low cost DSLR lenses. It is usually very easy to see in wide angle photos. It can be now be corrected in software.    
27. Vignetting, or light falloff, darkens images near the corners. It can be significant with wide angle lenses.    
28. Exposure accuracy can be an issue with fully automatic cameras and with video cameras where there is little or no opportunity for post-exposure tonal adjustment. Some even have exposure memory: exposure may change after very bright or dark objects appear in a scene.    
29. Lateral chromatic aberration (LCA), also called "color fringing", including purple fringing, is a lens aberration that causes colors to focus at different distances from the image center. It is most visible near corners of images. LCA is worst with asymmetrical lenses, including ultra-wides, true telephotos and zooms. It is strongly affected by demosaicing.    
30. Lens flare, including "veiling glare" is stray light in lenses and optical systems caused by reflections between lens elements and the inside barrel of the lens. It can cause image fogging (loss of shadow detail and color) as well as "ghost" images that can occur in the presence of bright light sources in or near the field of view.    
31. Color moiré is artificial color banding that can appear in images with repetitive patterns of high spatial frequencies, like fabrics or picket fences. It is affected by lens sharpness, the anti-aliasing (low-pass) filter (which softens the image), and demosaicing software. It tends to be worst with the sharpest lenses.     
32. Artifacts – software (especially operations performed during RAW conversion) can cause significant visual artifacts, including data compression and transmission losses (e.g. Low quality JPEG), oversharpening "halos" and loss of fine, low-contrast detail.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

X-T2 FUJIFILM & X-T2 get SERIOUS firmware updates, split over 2 months!


 March 2017 Update

1. Shooting RAW in Bracketing and Advanced Filters
The update enables you to use the RAW format when shooting not only in AE Bracketing but also in other Bracketing modes (ISO, Dynamic Range, White Balance, Film Simulaitons) and also in Advanced Filter modes.
2. Extended ISO 125 and 160 selectable
The update adds ISO125 and ISO160 to extended ISO levels available.
3. Programmable long exposure of up to 15 minutes
Long exposure in the T mode currently goes only up to 30 seconds. The update will allow users to extend it up to 15 minutes.
4. ON/OFF for 1/3-step shutter speed adjustment (X-T2 only – already in X-Pro2)
The update allows you to turn off the Command Dial’s function to adjust shutter speed by 1/3 steps in order to prevent unintended adjustments.
5. Full-range ISO adjustments with the Command Dial (X-T2 only)
With the update, set the ISO “A” position to “Command” to adjust ISO sensitivity across the full range, including extended ISOs, with the Front Command Dial.
6. “AUTO” setting added for the minimum shutter speed in the ISO Auto setting
The update adds an AUTO option for the minimum shutter speed in the ISO Auto setting, that allows the camera to automatically define the minimum shutter speed according to the focal length of the lens attached.
7. Faster “Face Detection AF”
The update enables the use of Phase Detection AF for faster performance in Face Detection AF.
8. Improved in-focus indication in the AF-C mode
The update reduces focus hunting in the AF-C mode, making it easier to track a subject.
9. Addition of a smaller Focus Point size in Single Point AF
The update adds a smaller Focus Point size in Single Point AF, bringing the total number of available sizes to six. The new smallest size facilitates pin-point focusing.
10. Addition of “AF Point Display” (X-Pro2 only – already on X-T2)
With the update, you can choose to have AF Points constantly displayed in Zone AF and Wide / Tracking AF, making it easier to track a subject.
11. Addition of “AF-C Custom Setting” (X-Pro2 only – already on X-T2)
The update adds “AF-C Custom Setting” for specifying focus-tracking characteristics. Choose from five presets according to your subject’s type of movements.
12. Addition of “Portrait / Landscape AF Mode Switching” (X-T2 only)
The update allows you to specify separate AF mode and AF point settings for portrait orientation and landscape orientation.
13. Change of focus frame position while enlarging it
The update allows you to move the position of focus frame while enlarging it in Single Point in the AF-S mode or in the Manual Focus
14. Activation of the Eye Sensor in video recording (X-T2 only)
The update allows you to use the Eye Sensor during video recording to automatically switch between EVF and LCD.
15. Change of ISO sensitivity during video recording (X-T2 only)
The update allows you to change ISO setting during video recording.
16. Re-autofocusing in video recording
With the update, half-press the Shutter Release button or press the button assigned to “AF-ON” function during video recording to re-do autofocusing.
17. Display live histogram during video recording (X-T2 only)
The update allows you to display a live histogram during video recording.
18. Optimization of external microphone’s input level (X-T2 only)
The update optimizes external microphone’s input level (lower limit revised from -12dB to 20dB) to reduce white noise when an external microphone with preamp is connected.
19. Addition of “Eye Sensor + LCD Image Display” in the View Mode
The update gives the “Eye Sensor + LCD Image Display” option in the View Mode that allows you to shoot through the viewfinder and check images on the LCD, just as you would with an SLR.
20. Shorter EVF display time-lag (X-Pro2 only – already in X-T2)
The update shortens EVF’s display time-lag in the AF-C mode so that you will not miss a photo opportunity.
21. Constant “Dual” mode display (X-T2 only)
With the update, the small window in the Dual mode stays on even when you half-press the shutter release button.
22. Automatic vertical GUI for LCD (X-T2 only)
With the update, when you hold the camera in the portrait orientation, the camera will automatically display the GUI on the LCD in the same orientation.
23. Name Custom Settings
The update allows you to assign a specific name to Custom Settings 1 – 7.
24. Copyright information in EXIF data
The update allows you to register the photographer’s name and the copyright holder’s name in advance so that the camera automatically adds the information to EXIF data for each image.
25. Voice Memo function
The update enable you to record 30-second “Voice Memo” clips in the Playback mode.
26. Extended AE Bracketing
The update extends AE Bracketing from the current 3 frames +/-2EV to up to 9 frames +/-3EV.
27. Addition of “Shoot Without Card” mode
With the update, you can have the “Shoot Without Card” mode turned OFF so that the camera can not shoot when there is no SD card inserted.

May 2017 Update

28. Support for computer tethering via Wi-Fi (X-T2 only)
The update adds support for computer tethering via Wi-Fi.
29. Addition of “All” AF mode (X-T2 only)
With the update, select “All” in the AF mode so that you can select the AF mode and Focus Area size by only using the Command Dial.
30. Function extension for “Shutter AF” and “Shutter AE” (X-T2 only)
With the update, you can specify different settings for AF-S and AF-C in “Shutter AF” and for AF-S / MF and AF-C in “Shutter AE.”
31. Addition of “-6” and “-7” to EVF’s brightness setting
Additional options of “-6” and “-7” to the “EVF Brightness” setting so that, even in an extremely low-light condition, the brightness of the EVF does not distract you from shooting.
32. Switchover of the main and sub displays in the Dual Display mode (X-T2 only)
The update allows you to switch between the main and sub displays in the Dual Display mode.
33. Function assignment to the Rear Command Dial
With the update, you can assign a specific function to be activated when the Rear Command Dial is pressed.

Thursday, December 1, 2016

SHORT & SWEET: FX vs. DX, or "You cant get Orange Juice from Cow Tits"

Lets keep it simple, ok? Short and sweet. The KEY reasons of owning a FX camera is reducable to four things:

1. Ultrawide lenses, both prime and zoom for landscape work

2. Lens compression of framed subject face/body (A 56mm on DX is still a 56mm, despite being a 85mm FOV)

3. To get "great" bokeh requires less a shallow DOF at a given focal (85mm at 1.8 requires a 56mm at 1.4 or faster)

4. Pixel pitch (all exposure is gain and time) on MOST (some are DX pitch) FX cameras is such that shadow recovery and DR is much better

One LIVES within these limitations. DX itself has advantages over FX (pixel pitch for cropping for wildlife photography).

All in life is a trade-off, deal with it (or own both, as most pros do).

Friday, October 28, 2016

EXCLUSIVE CONTENT: All Nikkor Current Lenses Evaluated


17 min. video where I go over ALL current Nikkor lenses and my recommendation or lack thereof as to whether the lens is worth having, or owning.

While I quickly go over EVERY current Nikkor lens, the experience and knowledge of each lens i quickly judge has tremendous experience behind it for or against each lens.


Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Ren Kockwell (you know who I am referring to) is a TOTAL IDIOT

Let me quote the fool below,...if you cannot find 100% fault and ignorance in everything he says, then you should sell your camera and take up another hobby/ job.

Many decades ago lens adapters were popular because cameras and lenses didn't communicate with each other, and because cameras and lenses were all made by different companies anyway.

Today it's foolish to try to adapt different lenses to digital cameras. There is no communication between lens and camera, so it's a royal pain to try to shoot with the Frankensteinian combination, and the results usually aren't as good.

When you use a lens adapter, you sentence yourself to enormous added hassles of losing metering, losing exposure automation, losing data recording, losing autofocus and losing automatic diaphragm operation: you have to remember to close and open the diaphragm by hand for each and every shot!

People quickly learn that you can't really use other brands of lenses on your DSLR or mirrorless camera because of this added inconvenience, and the potential for quality loss when using lenses optimized for different formats just isn't worth it.

It doesn't matter if you can get an Olympus OM lens and a Sony NEX adapter or whatever inexpensively on ebay, because the resulting combination of using an older lens on a digital camera always results in frustration, and the end results are rarely as good as using the correct lens in the first place.

Even the crummier modern mirrorless lenses are often optically better than using older top-end SLR or rangefinder lenses because newer lenses use far newer designs which are usually much sharper than what we accepted for use back on full-frame 35mm film.

In almost all cases, there is no electronic communication from the adapter, so you get no EXIF information, either, about the lens or its focal length.

Yes, it's easy and inexpensive to adapt old lenses to your new camera, but actually shooting with it will be a big pain. Using a lens on an adapter adds many more steps between you and your photo, all of which are taken care of automatically when you use the correct modern lens for your camera. The results with the modern lens will probably be better than with an old adapted lens, too.

If you use an adapter and like it, don't let me discourage you, but if you're asking my advice, adapters make everything much more complicated. Any time I'm thinking about my camera instead of thinking about my subject and what's in my picture winds up as weaker images.

Lens adapters are for tweakers, not for productive photographers.

Friday, October 21, 2016

Wednesday, October 19, 2016

X-T2 CONCLUSION: 1 MONTH HARD TESTING Final Scoring of the Fujifilm X-T2

Detailed review to appear later, here is my final conclusion on owning a pair of X-T2 and doing very extensive testing for over a month.